Winnipeg Medical Clinics - Respiratory Diseases are a term that encompasses various pathological conditions that affect the organs and tissues which make the gas exchange possible. The conditions that fit under the designation of a respiratory disease, consist of issues with the bronchi, upper respiratory tract, bronchioles, trachea, pleural cavity, alveoli, pleura as well as the nerves and muscles that are responsible for breathing. Respiratory diseases vary from mild and self-limiting like the common cold for instance, to life-threatening conditions such as lung cancer, pulmonary embolism, and bacterial pneumonia.
Pulmonology is the study of respiratory disease and a medical doctor specializing in this field particularly is referred to as a pulmonologist. Other names for this medical practitioner comprise: a respiratory medicine specialist, a thoracic medicine specialist, a chest medicine expert and a respirologist.
There are lots of classifications utilized for the various respiratory diseases; they can be classed by the tissue or organ involved or can be classed by the type and pattern of related signs and symptoms, or according to the etiology or cause of the disease.
Inflammatory Lung Disease
Inflammatory Lung Disease is characterized by a high neutrophil count. Several examples comprise: emphysema, acute respiratory distress syndrome, chronic obstructive pulmonary disorder and cystic fibrosis.
Allergic reactions are a common cause of acute respiratory disease. This is because of the exposure to various agents and foods. Common allergens that are found in foods could include radish, lemon, sea foods like for example some fatty fish and prawns, peanuts, bananas, pomegranates, dairy and ice creams, lemon, arrowroot, lady's finger and berries. Climate may likewise affect various individuals because sandy and dusty weather conditions during summertime may make the quality of air poor for those who are sensitive.
Obstructive Lung Diseases
This category of lung diseases are where the airways consisting of the bronchioles, alveoli and bronchi become reduced in volume or else have the free flow of gas impeded, thus making it harder to move air in and out of the lungs.
COPD or Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease
Asthma is an example of COPD. In this obstructive lung disease, the airways become damaged and this causes them to narrow.
Restrictive Lung Diseases or Interstitial Lung Diseases
Restrictive Lung Diseases are a category of respiratory disease that is characterized by a loss of lung compliance. These RLD's may lead to increased lung stiffness and incomplete lung expansion. IRDS or likewise known as Infant Respiratory Distress Syndrome is an example.
Respiratory Tract Infections
Infections can affect whatever part of the respiratory system. They are usually divided into upper respiratory tract infections and lower respiratory tract infections.
Upper Respiratory Tract Infection
The most common kind of upper respiratory infection is the common cold. Infections of the upper respiratory tract specific organs may consist of pharyngitis, tonsillitis, laryngitis, otitis media and sinusitis are likewise in this category.
Lower Respiratory Tract Infection
The most common lower respiratory tract infection is pneumonia. This particular lung infection will usually be a result of Streptococcus within the Western world. Tuberculosis is a large cause of pneumonia across the globe. Different fungi and viruses can lead to pneumonia too, like for example acute respiratory syndrome and pneumocystic pneumonia.
Respiratory tumours are either malignant or benign.
Pleural Cavity Diseases
Diseases of the pleural cavity includes emphysema and mesothelioma. A build up of fluid within the pleural cavity is called a pleural effusion. This can be caused by conditions such as cirrhosis and congestive heart failure, as the fluid from the bloodstream shifts into the pleural cavity. Diseases here may likewise occur from pleura inflammation, TB, mesothelioma, pulmonary embolism and other conditions.
The pneumothorax is a hole in the pleura which helps to cover the lungs, where air is permitted inside the lungs to escape into the pleural cavity. A tension pneumothorax is a severe form of this where the air cannot escape in the pleural cavity and the pressure eventually gets bigger compressing the blood vessels and the heart, resulting in a dangerous life-threatening situation.
Pulmonary Vascular Diseases
Pulmonary Vascular Diseases are certain conditions which affect the pulmonary flow. Examples of these diseases comprise: Pulmonary arterial hypertension, Pulmonary hemorrhage, Pulmonary embolism and Pulmponary edema.
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